Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Musa acuminata Fiber Derived Hard Carbon as Anodes of Sodium-Ion Batteries
Hard carbon (HC) was successfully synthesized using a bio-waste precursor from Musa acuminata fiber (MaF) as an eco-friendly option through the pyrolysis process at 500 °C. Further, it was activated using the chemical activating agents, NaOH and ZnCl2, at 900 °C, named Na–MaFDHC and Zn–MaFDHC. The MaFDHCs are employed as anode materials for emerging sodium-ion batteries (NIBs). The nitrogen (N2) adsorption and desorption studies and HRTEM images resulted that the MaFDHCs have a mesoporous nature. The surface area and pore diameter of the carbon materials are increased significantly after the treatment with activating agents, which are important factors for anodes of NIBs. The electrochemical performance of the MaFDHCs depends on the activation agent. Zn–MaFDHC with a higher surface area showed better results, yielding a charge capacity of about 114 mAh g−1 at a 1C rate.