Vorkommen und Vergesellschaftung von Verbascum nigrum L. an Straßenböschungen und anderen linearen Strukturen im östlichen Niedersachsen, in der Altmark sowie im angrenzenden Elbtal
Verbascum nigrum is the most widespread Verbascum species in Germany. But only less is known about its sites and associations. It is underrepresented in plant-sociologic releves. One reason for this is probably that it grows mainly within linear structures and unattended meadow banks. It grows along roadsides, roadside ditches, older embankment slops, river sides and shrubbery sides as well as in quarries and sand pits. Regionally unattended banks and slops of meadows and pastures are remarkable growing places. Contrary to elder literature Verbascum nigrum is found nowadays only seldom at deforestations.
Verbascum nigrum is associated with species of the Artemisietea class (in a broader sence) especially with Urtica dioica, Tanacetum vulgare, Artemisia vulgare, Cirsium arvense, Silene latifolia subsp. alba, Poa angustifolia, Elymus repens, Hypericum perforatum and Rumex thyrsiflorus. Species of Molinio-Arrhenathereta like Arrhenatherum elatius, Holcus lanatus, Dactylis glomerata, Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata and Galium album appear more or less regularlely. The disturbance of the roadsite growing places by too frequent mowing, milling and heavy trucks or burrowing of animals results in very open vegetation promoting Stellarietea species like Myosotis arvensis, Tripleurospermum inodorum, Lactuca serriola, Conyza canadensis, Bromus hordeaceus subsp. hordeaceus, Geranium pusillum, Papaver dubium, Papaver rhoeas.
Its appearance at cemeteries and rural front gardens indicates that Verbascum nigrum is tolerated at such places.
Without any doubt Verbascum nigrum has its focal point in grass-rich Artemisietea communities. Despite of occasionally appearing Arction communities rich in character species Verbascum nigrum should not be seen as a character species of an own Arction community because its steadiness is too low and such a community would be characterized by only one species whereas a characterizing species combination is missing. If necessary the stands can be seen as a basal or derivate community which would allow to cover a possible change of the plant sociological connection by changing environmental conditions.
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