Physiological Importance of Molybdate Transporter Family 1 in Feeding the Molybdenum Cofactor Biosynthesis Pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana
Molybdate uptake and molybdenum cofactor (Moco) biosynthesis were investigated in detail in the last few decades. The present study critically reviews our present knowledge about eukaryotic molybdate transporters (MOT) and focuses on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, complementing it with new experiments, filling missing gaps, and clarifying contradictory results in the literature. Two molybdate transporters, MOT1.1 and MOT1.2, are known in Arabidopsis, but their importance for sufficient molybdate supply to Moco biosynthesis remains unclear. For a better understanding of their physiological functions in molybdate homeostasis, we studied the impact of mot1.1 and mot1.2 knock-out mutants, including a double knock-out on molybdate uptake and Moco-dependent enzyme activity, MOT localisation, and protein-protein interactions. The outcome illustrates different physiological roles for Moco biosynthesis: MOT1.1 is plasma membrane located and its function lies in the efficient absorption of molybdate from soil and its distribution throughout the plant. However, MOT1.1 is not involved in leaf cell imports of molybdate and has no interaction with proteins of the Moco biosynthesis complex. In contrast, the tonoplast-localised transporter MOT1.2 exports molybdate stored in the vacuole and makes it available for re-localisation during senescence. It also supplies the Moco biosynthesis complex with molybdate by direct interaction with molybdenum insertase Cnx1 for controlled and safe sequestering.