Impact of Condensation on the System Performance of a Fuel Cell Turbocharger
A mobile fuel cell systems power output can be increased by pressure amplification using an electric turbocharger. These devices are subject to frequent transient manoeuvres due to a multitude of load changes during the mission in automotive applications. In this paper, the authors describe a simulation approach for an electric turbocharger, considering the impact of moist air and condensation within the cathode gas supply system. Therefore, two simulation approaches are used: an iterative simulation method and one based on a set of ordinary differential equations. Additional information is included from turbine performance maps taking into account condensation using Euler–Lagrange CFD simulations, which are presented. The iterative calculation approach is well suited to show the impact of condensation and moist air on the steady state thermodynamic cycle and yields a significant shift of the steady state operating line towards the surge line. It is shown that a substantial risk of surge occurs during transient deceleration manoeuvres triggered by a load step.