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Changes in granule mobility and age contribute to changes in insulin secretion after desensitization or rest : incl. supplementary material

Affiliation/Institute
Institut für Pharmakologie, Toxikologie und Klinische Pharmazie
Gaus, Bastian;
GND
1218569239
Affiliation/Institute
Institut für Pharmakologie, Toxikologie und Klinische Pharmazie
Brüning, Dennis;
GND
136224881
Affiliation/Institute
Institut für Pharmakologie, Toxikologie und Klinische Pharmazie
Hatlapatka, Kathrin;
ORCID
0000-0002-5218-3326
Affiliation/Institute
Institut für Pharmakologie, Toxikologie und Klinische Pharmazie
Rustenbeck, Ingo

Introduction Functional impairment of the stimulus secretion coupling in pancreatic beta cells is an essential component of type 2 diabetes. It is known that prolonged stimulation desensitizes the secretion of insulin and thus contributes to beta cell dysfunction. Beta cell rest, in contrast, was shown to enhance the secretory response. Here, the underlying mechanisms were investigated.

Research design and methods To characterize the consequences of desensitization or rest for the number and mobility of submembrane granules, insulin-secreting MIN6 cells were desensitized by 18-hour culture with 500 µM tolbutamide or rested by 18-hour culture with 1 µM clonidine. The granules were labeled by hIns-EGFP or hIns-DsRed E5, imaged by TIRF microscopy of the cell footprint area and analyzed with an observer-independent program. Additionally, the insulin content and secretion were measured.

Results Concurrent with the insulin content, submembrane granules were only slightly reduced after desensitization but markedly increased after rest. Both types of pretreatment diminished arrivals and departures of granules in the submembrane space and increased the proportion of immobile long-term resident granules, but desensitization lowered and rest increased the number of exocytoses, in parallel with the effect on insulin secretion. Labeling with hIns-DsRed E5 (‘timer’) showed that desensitization did not affect the proportion of aged granules, whereas rest increased it. Aged granules showed a high mobility and made up only a minority of long-term residents. Long-term resident granules were more numerous after rest and had a lower lateral mobility, suggesting a firmer attachment to the membrane.

Conclusion The number, mobility and age of submembrane granules reflect the preceding functional states of insulin-secreting cells. Representing the pool of releasable granules, their quantity and quality may thus form part of the beta cell memory on renewed stimulation.

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