A Systematic Comparison of Near-Field Beamforming and Fourier-based Backward-Wave Holographic Imaging
In this paper we show the equivalence of near-field beamforming and backward-wave reconstruction algorithm. The proof is carried out analytically with two different approaches, using the principle of stationary phase from a signal processing point of view and the angular spectrum representation as an electromagnetic point of view. A comparison of the time complexity of the near-field beamforming and backward-wave reconstruction algorithm is given. A detailed discussion of the constraints required for a digital implementation is presented, leading to limitations for the chosen system parameters, especially for the backward-wave reconstruction approach. An exemplarily scenario is simulated and processed, confirming the found equivalence between the two very different approaches of image reconstruction. An additional measurement with a 120 GHz radar showcases the capabilities of both algorithms and validates our findings.