Automatic Information Exchange in the Early Rescue Chain Using the International Standard Accident Number (ISAN)
Thus far, emergency calls are answered by human operators who interview the calling person in order to obtain all relevant information. In the near future-based on the Internet of (Medical) Things (IoT, IoMT)-accidents, emergencies, or adverse health events will be reported automatically by smart homes, smart vehicles, or smart wearables, without any human in the loop. Several parties are involved in this communication: the alerting system, the rescue service (responding system), and the emergency department in the hospital (curing system). In many countries, these parties use isolated information and communication technology (ICT) systems. Previously, the International Standard Accident Number (ISAN) has been proposed to securely link the data in these systems. In this work, we propose an ISAN-based communication platform that allows semantically interoperable information exchange. Our aims are threefold: (i) to enable data exchange between the isolated systems, (ii) to avoid data misinterpretation, and (iii) to integrate additional data sources. The suggested platform is composed of an alerting, responding, and curing system manager, a workflow manager, and a communication manager. First, the ICT systems of all parties in the early rescue chain register with their according system manager, which tracks the keep-alive. In case of emergency, the alerting system sends an ISAN to the platform. The responsible rescue services and hospitals are determined and interconnected for platform-based communication. Next to the conceptual design of the platform, we evaluate a proof-of-concept implementation according to (1) the registration, (2) channel establishment, (3) data encryption, (4) event alert, and (5) information exchange. Our concept meets the requirements for scalability, error handling, and information security. In the future, it will be used to implement a virtual accident registry.