Effects of the Nail Geometry and Humidity on the Nail Penetration of High-Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries
Internal short-circuit tests were carried out in a battery safety investigation chamber to determine the behavior of batteries during the nail penetration test. So far, systematic investigations regarding the test setup and its influence are rarely found in the literature. Especially, to improve the comparability of the multitude of available results, it is essential to understand the effects of the geometric, operating and ambient parameters. In this study commercial lithium ion batteries with a capacity of 5.3 and 3.3 Ah were used to study the influence of the varied parameters on the voltage drop, the development of surface temperatures and of infrared active gas species. We studied both the influence of the geometry of the penetrating nail and concentration of water in the inert atmosphere especially on the quantities of the reaction products under variation of cell capacity. It could be shown that the geometry of the nail, within certain limits, has no influence on the processes of the thermal runaway of high energy density lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, a change in capacity from 5.3 to 3.3 Ah shows that in particular the gaseous reaction products differ: The standardized gas concentrations show a higher measurable concentration of all gases except CO for the 3.3 Ah LIBs. This circumstance can be explained by the intensity of the reactions due to the different battery capacities: In the 5.3 Ah cells a larger amount of unreacted material is immediately discharged from the reaction center, and by the different available amounts of oxidizing reaction partners. An increase of the water content in the surrounding atmosphere during the thermal runaway leads to a reduction of the measurable gas concentrations of up to 36.01%. In general, all measured concentrations decrease. With increased water content more reaction products from the atmosphere can be directly bound or settle as condensate on surfaces.