Beyond solid-state lighting : Miniaturization, hybrid integration, and applications of GaN nano- and micro-LEDs
Gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting-diode (LED) technology has been the revolution in modern lighting. In the last decade, a huge global market of efficient, long-lasting, and ubiquitous white light sources has developed around the inception of the Nobel-prize-winning blue GaN LEDs. Today, GaN optoelectronics is developing beyond solid-state lighting, leading to new and innovative devices, e.g., for microdisplays, being the core technology for future augmented reality and visualization, as well as point light sources for optical excitation in communications, imaging, and sensing. This explosion of applications is driven by two main directions: the ability to produce very small GaN LEDs (micro-LEDs and nano-LEDs) with high efficiency and across large areas, in combination with the possibility to merge optoelectronic-grade GaN micro-LEDs with silicon microelectronics in a hybrid approach. GaN LED technology is now even spreading into the realm of display technology, which has been occupied by organic LEDs and liquid crystal displays for decades. In this review, the technological transition toward GaN micro- and nanodevices beyond lighting is discussed including an up-to-date overview on the state of the art.